This type of writing was superseded by Demotic—a Lower Egyptian scribal tradition—during the 26th Dynasty, when Demotic was established as a standard administrative script throughout a re-unified Egypt.
These two forms can often be significantly different from one another.
A highly cursive form of hieratic known as "Abnormal Hieratic" was used in the Theban area from the second half of the 20th dynasty until the beginning of the 26th Dynasty. Hieratic is often present in any given period in two forms, a highly ligatured, cursive script used for administrative documents, and a broad uncial bookhand used for literary, scientific, and religious texts.
Hieratic can also be an adjective meaning "[o]f or associated with sacred persons or offices; sacerdotal. Letters, in particular, used very cursive forms for quick writing, often with large numbers of abbreviations for formulaic phrases, similar to shorthand.
Uses and materials[ edit ] One of four official letters to vizier Khay copied onto fragments of limestone an ostracon. There are also hieratic texts written on cloth, especially on linen used in mummification.
Etymology[ edit ] In the second century, the term hieratic was first used by Clement of Alexandria. There are some hieratic texts inscribed on stone, a variety known as lapidary hieratic; these are particularly common on stelae from the 22nd Dynasty. Of the letters, many are internal letters that were circulated within the palace and the local settlement, but others were sent from other villages in the oasis to the governor.
Characteristics[ edit ] Exercise tablet with hieratic excerpt from The Instructions of Amenemhat. Hieratic is noted for its cursive nature and use of ligatures for a number of characters. Hieratic was used into the Hellenistic period. Through most of its long history, hieratic was used for writing administrative documents, accounts, legal texts, and letters, as well as mathematical, medical, literary, and religious texts.
Around BCE, the even more-cursive Demotic script arose in northern Egypt and replaced hieratic and the southern shorthand known as abnormal hieratic for most mundane writing, such as personal letters and mercantile documents.
Most often, hieratic script was written in ink with a reed brush  on papyruswoodstone or pottery ostraca. Hieratic continued to be used by the priestly class for religious texts and literature into the third century BCE. It was also the writing system first taught to students, knowledge of hieroglyphs being limited to a small minority who were given additional training.
Besides papyrus, stone, ceramic shards, and wood, there are hieratic texts on leather rolls, though few have survived. Trust no brother, know no friend, make no intimates.
Initially, hieratic could be written in either columns or horizontal lines, but after the 12th Dynasty specifically during the reign of Amenemhat IIIhorizontal writing became the standard.
Hieratic script also uses a much more standardized orthography than hieroglyphs; texts written in the latter often had to take into account extra-textual concerns, such as decorative uses and religious concerns that were not present in, say, a tax receipt.
There are also some signs that are unique to hieratic, though Egyptologists have invented equivalent hieroglyphic forms for hieroglyphic transcriptions and typesetting. Thousands of limestone ostraca have been found at the site of Deir al-Madinahrevealing an intimate picture of the lives of common Egyptian workmen.
During the late 6th Dynastyhieratic was sometimes incised into mud tablets with a stylussimilar to cuneiform.Hieratic (/ h aɪ ə ˈ r æ t ɪ k /; Ancient Greek: ἱερατικά, translit. hieratiká, lit. 'priestly') is a cursive writing system used for Ancient Egyptian, and the principal script used to write that language from its development in the 3rd millennium BCE until the rise of Demotic in the mid 1st millennium BCE.
It was primarily written in ink with a reed pen on papyrus. Online keyboard to type a text with the Arabic characters.Download