The song becomes a part of the marriage ceremony when the child is grown, and at the end of life, his or her loved ones will gather around the deathbed and sing this song for the last time.
Genetic and biological factors as well as environment and early life experiences are all thought to play a role in the development of this condition. Group therapy was initially thought to be unsuitable for patients with narcissism because clinicians assumed that these patients would be unable to handle the requisite give-and-take inherent in the group process.
The negativized ego than proceeds to compensate for the Self-estrangement by suppressing the personal needs which are inherent in the Self; thus "the negativized ego of the narcissistically disturbed person is characterized by strong defense mechanisms and ego rigidity. Physical illness may shatter this illusion, and a patient may lose the feeling of safety inherent in a cohesive sense of self.
However, healing the current narcissistic injury does not address the underlying initial injury and in particular the issue of the false self. The most pervasive defense mechanism is the grandiose defense.
Individual and group psychotherapy may be useful in helping people with narcissistic personality disorder relate to others in a healthier and more compassionate way. It remains up to the therapist to recognize the particular defense mechanisms that the narcissist will use to defend against the pain of the injury, and work backwards from there to discover the cause of the injury Manfield, By contrast the object relations school, represented by Kernberg, argues that narcissism does not result from the arrest of the normal maturation of infantile narcissism, rather a narcissism represents a fixation in one of the developmental periods of childhood.
In particular, four of these narcissistic character traits best illustrate the pattern discussed above. The practicing subphase age 10 to 14 months marks the developmental stage at which the child learns to walk. Individuals with narcissistic personality disorder have difficulty tolerating criticism or defeat, and may be left feeling humiliated or empty when they experience an "injury" in the form of criticism or rejection.
According to Kernberg if the child is severely frustrated at this stage he or she can adapt by re-fusing or returning to the practicing subphase, which affords him the security of grandiosity and omnipotence Kernberg, To address these issues the therapist must skillfully take advantage of the situations when the narcissist becomes uncharacteristically emotional; that is when the narcissist feels injured.
It is therefore essential for the therapist to be alert to the narcissists attempts to steer therapy towards healing the injured grandiose part, rather than exploring the underlying feelings of inferiority and despair.
The most extreme form of narcissism involves the perception that no separation exists between the self and the object. The object is thus perceived as useful only to the extent of its ability to aggrandize the false self Manfield, The cardinal feature of the narcissistic personality is the grandiose sense of self importance, but paradoxically underneath this grandiosity the narcissist suffers from a chronically fragile low self esteem.
In the narcissist the process of transmuting internalizations is arrested because the person experiences a level of frustration which exceeds optimal frustration. Once the cause of the injury is discovered the therapist must carefully explore the issue with the narcissist, such that the patient does not feel threatened.
In effect the narcissist perceives the object as "just like me". Agents that may be indicated in the treatment of NPD patients include the following:Mentalization-based therapy, transference-focused psychotherapy, and schema-focused psychotherapy have all been suggested as effective ways of treating narcissistic personality disorder.
Essay Narcissism: Psychological Theories and Therapeutic Interventions in the Narcissistic Disorders Introduction Understanding the Narcissistic Phenomenon The so called "narcissistic personality disorder" is a complex and often misunderstood disorder.
The cardinal feature of the narcissistic personality is the grandiose sense. May 16, · Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is 1 of the 10 clinically recognized personality disorders listed in the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5).
Narcissism: Psychological Theories and Therapeutic Interventions in the Narcissistic Disorders Introduction Understanding the Narcissistic Phenomenon. Psychological Theories on Narcissism On Narcissism: Psychological Theories and Therapeutic Interventions in the Narcissistic Disorders Introduction Understanding the Narcissistic Phenomenon The so called 'narcissistic personality disorder' is a complex and often misunderstood disorder.
"On Narcissism: Psychological Theories and Therapeutic Interventions in the Narcissistic Disorders". An anonymous piece, widely available on the Web, has been around for at least five years Its title describes it efficiently and, as far as I can judge, it is okay.Download